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Drupal7配合Varnish及整合drupal模块详细教程

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本站关于varnish的介绍比较多,不过varnish的使用相对复杂,尤其跟drupal配合使用,本文就介绍一下关于Drupal7配合Varnish使用的详细设置,以便初学者也能顺利安装varnish和Drupal。

关于Varnish的介绍文章,请参考:

Drupal大学里关于Varnish的问答板块:varnish问答

准备环境

首先安装一个全新的Drupal,推荐使用drush安装,方便迅速。
先要建一个数据库,记住用户和密码。

###进入mysql
mysql -uroot -p
CREATE DATABASE `mydb` CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;
GRANT ALL ON `mydb`.* TO `username`@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
####退出mysql

Drush安装Drupal7:

drush dl drupal-7.x; #--select 用来选择一个版本
drush site-install standard --account-name=admin --account-pass=admin --db-url=mysql://YourMySQLUser:RandomPassword@localhost/YourMySQLDatabase

默认会安装最新版本的drupal7,如果要选择一个版本,请加参数:–select。

安装成功后,再下载一个varnish模块。

#进入drupal目录
drush dl varnish

安装Varnish

我们默认一个CentOS为例,因为CentOS仓库中的Varnish版本较低,要导入一个新的repo,然后,在升级一下yum软件库。
具体参考这个链接:https://www.varnish-cache.org/installation/redhat

####Varnish 4.0:
rpm --nosignature -i https://repo.varnish-cache.org/redhat/varnish-4.0.el6.rpm
yum install varnish
 
####Varnish 3.0:
 
###RHEL 5 or a compatible distribution, use:
 
rpm --nosignature -i https://repo.varnish-cache.org/redhat/varnish-3.0.el5.rpm
yum install varnish
 
###RHEL 6 and compatible distributions, use:
 
rpm --nosignature -i https://repo.varnish-cache.org/redhat/varnish-3.0.el6.rpm
yum install varnish
 
#如果安装的版本不对,请update一下。
#yum update

输入如下命令监测是否安装成功:

$ usr/sbin/varnishd -V
varnishd (varnish-3.0.5 revision 1a89b1f)
Copyright (c) 2006 Verdens Gang AS
Copyright (c) 2006-2011 Varnish Software AS

设置Varnish的VCL

复制如下代码到/etc/varnish/default.vcl里面:

backend default {
  .host = "127.0.0.1";
  .port = "80";
}
 
sub vcl_recv {
  if (req.restarts == 0) {
    if (req.http.x-forwarded-for) {
      set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = req.http.X-Forwarded-For +  ", " +  client.ip;
    }
    else {
      set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = client.ip;
    }
  }
 
  # Do not cache these paths.
  if (req.url ~ "^/status.php$" ||
    req.url ~ "^/update.php$" ||
    req.url ~ "^/ooyala/ping$" ||
    req.url ~ "^/admin/build/features" ||
    req.url ~ "^/info/.$" ||
    req.url ~ "^/flag/.$" ||
    req.url ~ "^./ajax/.$" ||
    req.url ~ "^./ahah/.$") {
    return (pass);
  }
 
  # Pipe these paths directly to Apache for streaming.
  if (req.url ~ "^/admin/content/backup_migrate/export") {
    return (pipe);
  }
 
  # Allow the backend to serve up stale content if it is responding slowly.
  set req.grace = 6h;
 
  # Use anonymous, cached pages if all backends are down.
  if (!req.backend.healthy) {
    unset req.http.Cookie;
  }
 
  # Always cache the following file types for all users.
  if (req.url ~ "(?i).(png|gif|jpeg|jpg|ico|swf|css|js|html|htm)(\?[\w\d=.-]+)?$") {
    unset req.http.Cookie;
  }
 
  # Remove all cookies that Drupal doesn't need to know about. ANY remaining
  # cookie will cause the request to pass-through to Apache. For the most part
  # we always set the NO_CACHE cookie after any POST request, disabling the
  # Varnish cache temporarily. The session cookie allows all authenticated users
  # to pass through as long as they're logged in.
  if (req.http.Cookie) {
    set req.http.Cookie = ";" +  req.http.Cookie;
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "; +", ";");
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, ";(SESS[a-z0-9]+|NO_CACHE)=", "; \1=");
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, ";[^ ][^;]*", "");
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "^[; ]+|[; ]+$", "");
 
    # Remove the "has_js" cookie
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "has_js=[^;]+(; )?", "");
    # Remove the "Drupal.toolbar.collapsed" cookie
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "Drupal.toolbar.collapsed=[^;]+(; )?", "");
    # Remove AdminToolbar cookie for drupal6
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "DrupalAdminToolbar=[^;]+(; )?", "");
    # Remove any Google Analytics based cookies
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "__utm.=[^;]+(; )?", "");
    # Remove the Quant Capital cookies (added by some plugin, all __qca)
    set req.http.Cookie = regsuball(req.http.Cookie, "__qc.=[^;]+(; )?", "");
 
     if (req.http.Cookie == "") {
      # If there are no remaining cookies, remove the cookie header. If there
      # aren't any cookie headers, Varnish's default behavior will be to cache
      # the page.
      unset req.http.Cookie;
      set req.http.X-Varnish-NoCookie = "TRUE";
    }
    else {
      # If there is any cookies left (a session or NO_CACHE cookie), do not
      # cache the page. Pass it on to Apache directly.
      set req.http.X-Varnish-NoCookie = "FALSE";
      set req.http.X-Varnish-CookieData = req.http.Cookie;
      return (pass);
    }
  }
 
  # Handle compression correctly. Different browsers send different
  # "Accept-Encoding" headers, even though they mostly all support the same
  # compression mechanisms. By consolidating these compression headers into
  # a consistent format, we can reduce the size of the cache and get more hits.
  # @see: http:// varnish.projects.linpro.no/wiki/FAQ/Compression
  if (req.http.Accept-Encoding) {
    if (req.http.Accept-Encoding ~ "gzip") {
      # If the browser supports it, we'll use gzip.
      set req.http.Accept-Encoding = "gzip";
    }
    else if (req.http.Accept-Encoding ~ "deflate") {
      # Next, try deflate if it is supported.
      set req.http.Accept-Encoding = "deflate";
    }
    else {
      # Unknown algorithm. Remove it and send unencoded.
      unset req.http.Accept-Encoding;
    }
  }
 
  if (req.request != "GET" &&
    req.request != "HEAD" &&
    req.request != "PUT" &&
    req.request != "POST" &&
    req.request != "TRACE" &&
    req.request != "OPTIONS" &&
    req.request != "DELETE") {
      /* Non-RFC2616 or CONNECT which is weird. */
      return (pipe);
  }
  if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
      /* We only deal with GET and HEAD by default */
      return (pass);
  }
  ## Unset Authorization header if it has the correct details...
  #if (req.http.Authorization == "Basic <hash>") {
  #  unset req.http.Authorization;
  #}
  if (req.http.Authorization || req.http.Cookie) {
      /* Not cacheable by default */
      return (pass);
  }
 
  return (lookup);
}
 
 
sub vcl_pipe {
    # Note that only the first request to the backend will have
    # X-Forwarded-For set.  If you use X-Forwarded-For and want to
    # have it set for all requests, make sure to have:
    set bereq.http.connection = "close";
    # here.  It is not set by default as it might break some broken web
    # applications, like IIS with NTLM authentication.
}
 
# Routine used to determine the cache key if storing/retrieving a cached page.
sub vcl_hash {
  if (req.http.X-Forwarded-Proto == "https") {
    hash_data(req.http.X-Forwarded-Proto);
  }
}
 
sub vcl_hit {
  if (req.request == "PURGE") {
    purge;
    error 200 "Purged.";
  }
}
 
sub vcl_miss {
  if (req.request == "PURGE") {
    purge;
    error 200 "Purged.";
  }
}
 
# Code determining what to do when serving items from the Apache servers.
sub vcl_fetch {
  set beresp.http.X-Varnish-CookieData = beresp.http.set-cookie;
  # Don't allow static files to set cookies.
  if (req.url ~ "(?i)\.(png|gif|jpeg|jpg|ico|swf|css|js)(\?[a-z0-9]+)?$") {
    # beresp == Back-end response from the web server.
    unset beresp.http.set-cookie;
  }
  else if (beresp.http.Cache-Control) {
    unset beresp.http.Expires;
  }
 
  if (beresp.status == 301) {
    set beresp.ttl = 1h;
    return(deliver);
  }
 
  ## Doesn't seem to work as expected
  #if (beresp.status == 500) {
  #  set beresp.saintmode = 10s;
  #  return(restart);
  #}
 
  # Allow items to be stale if needed.
  set beresp.grace = 1h;
}
 
# Set a header to track a cache HIT/MISS.
sub vcl_deliver {
  if (obj.hits > 0) {
    set resp.http.X-Varnish-Cache = "HIT";
  }
  else {
    set resp.http.X-Varnish-Cache = "MISS";
  }
}
 
# In the event of an error, show friendlier messages.
sub vcl_error {
     set obj.http.Content-Type = "text/html; charset=utf-8";
     set obj.http.Retry-After = "5";
     synthetic {"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html>
   <head>
     <title>"} + obj.status + " " + obj.response + {"</title>
   </head>
   <body>
     <h1>Error "} + obj.status + " " + obj.response + {"</h1>
     <p>"} + obj.response + {"</p>
     <h3>Guru Meditation:</h3>
     <p>XID: "} + req.xid + {"</p>
     <hr>
     <p>Varnish cache server</p>
   </body>
</html>
"};
     return (deliver);
}

配置完成之后,启动Varnish。

测试效果

打开浏览器,输入druapl7的地址,先看Drupal7是否正常,然后加上端口号。
比如我们的测试地址是:http://drupal7.drupal001.com,
那么再用浏览器打开varnish的地址,如下:http://drupal7.drupal001.com:6081/

测试结果,两边都正常就表示drupal和varnish都工作正常。

让Varnish缓存Drupal页面

用Firebug查看varnish的请求,如果看到http头里面有X-Varnish的标记表示varnish已经起作用,这时候我们要判断varnish是否缓存了页面。
如何判断:X-Varnish后面有一个数字,表示不是缓存,X-Varnish后面有两个数字,表示缓存成功。
参考这个问题:《Varnish如何判断缓存成功?》

到这里,我们会发现所有的varnish都没有缓存命中,那么问题来了。。。(挖掘机不会出现)
如何让varnish缓存起作用:

// Tell Drupal it's behind a proxy.
$conf['reverse_proxy'] = TRUE;
 
// Tell Drupal what addresses the proxy server(s) use.
$conf['reverse_proxy_addresses'] = array('127.0.0.1');
 
// Bypass Drupal bootstrap for anonymous users so that Drupal sets max-age &lt; 0.
$conf['page_cache_invoke_hooks'] = FALSE;
 
// Make sure that page cache is enabled.
$conf['cache'] = 1;
$conf['cache_lifetime'] = 0;
$conf['page_cache_maximum_age'] = 21600;

给Drupal的settings.php添加如下内容,然后刷新浏览器,即可看到X-Varnish的数字变成了两个(多刷几次)。

至此,Varnish已经完全可以缓存Drupal的页面了。如下图所示:

Drupal X-varnish

那么,Drupal的Varnish模块是做什么用的?看这篇文章 《varnish模块起到什么作用?
简单来说,Varnish就是通过Drupal的缓存接口,清除varnish的缓存,比如页面过期。
此外,通过Expire模块,可以精确的控制那些页面,过期时间都可以控制,比较方便。

配置Drupal.org的Varnish模块

启用Varnish模块,阅读一下varnish模块的官方说明: https://www.drupal.org/project/varnish
主要是给Drupal的settings.php添加如下两行:

// Add Varnish as the page cache handler.
$conf['cache_backends'] = array('sites/all/modules/varnish/varnish.cache.inc');
$conf['cache_class_cache_page'] = 'VarnishCache';

然后到Drupal设置页面,路径如下: admin/config/development/varnish
例如:
Varnish Control Terminal: 127.0.0.1:6082
Varnish Control Key: 86b2d660-9768-4a13-ab90-4b0736d6a4d1
点击保存,status就会变为绿色。
(注意:Control Key的值在/etc/varnish/secret 文件里面,复制内容即可)

设置完成,那么清空一下Drupal的缓存,就会发现Varnish里面的缓存值就会刷新,实现了即时清空缓存的目的。

+++++到此完成++++++++(更多问题到drupal大学:http://drupal001.net提问哦!)+++++

哦哦,还有一种情况,就是Varnish安装再另外一台服务器上,因为Varnish控制后台默认监听的是本机,因此,如果要刷新另一台反向代理服务器的缓存,就必须修改配置。可选的方法有两个,
其一,让Varnish的管理后台地址使用内网的IP(比如192.168.1.x),一般这种架构都是内网集群,因此监听内网也是比较合理的。
其二,本机使用autossh,把本机的端口6082映射到内网机器上面。

$ autossh -fN  -L 6082:localhost:6082

完成

至此,Drupal7 + Varnish的配置已经完成,Drupal和varnish也完全集成。Varnish的缓存总得来说速度大于其他缓存,所以可以代替Boost缓存。
如果要使用Varnish缓存动态内容,还有更多的内容要做,本文就不再增加大家的阅读量了(^_^)。

+++++++++++++++++++++++

最后,顺便多嘴,说一下Apache的RPAF Module。

Varnish默认使用 X-Forwarded-For作为远程IP的地址信息,但是这个不是一个标准的协议,有时候我们还是用PHP里面的 $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']来获得IP。
Apache有一个模块,RPAF的配置文件 rpaf.conf如下,即可获设置正确的IP地址。(具体安装就不多说)

RPAFenable On
RPAFsethostname  On
RPAFproxy_ips    127.0.0.1 192.168. 10.0.0.
RPAFheader       X-Forwarded-For

推荐链接:

Varnish on Drupal.org:
https://www.drupal.org/node/1054886
Varnish 3.x 配置: (这个vcl不一定对,我也提交了我的修改到这个页面,大家参考)
https://www.drupal.org/node/1823978
Purge 模块: https://www.drupal.org/project/purge
Varnish问答:http://drupal001.net/topic/46
Varnish2.1跟 Varnish3的区别:Varnish 2 upgrade to Varnish 3

Drupal7 + Varnish VCL(比较靠谱的) https://gist.github.com/slantview/2578057


声明: 本站所有文章欢迎转载,所有文章未说明,均属于原创,转载均请注明出处。
本文有效链接: http://www.drupal001.com/2014/10/drupal7-varnish/
版权所有: Drupal与高性能网站架构 http://www.drupal001.com


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评论:1

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  1. avatar
    回复 dzy
    17/05/12

    有没有一个功能完善的varnish 4.0 的配置?
    我用了官网的,github的等等几个发现有几个问题:
    1、302重定向导致503错误。新站点无法安装
    2、清理cookie有问题。导致私有文件目录下的文件无法访问。admin用户只要访问私有文件例如图片,就直接显示匿名用户无权限访问。
    3、私有文件目录下的图片无权显示。

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